KALMATRON® KF-αβγ test results analyzes provided by Dr. Robert Usher with the purpose of specifying the fields of application and improvement of the test procedure for future researches. Some conclusions became the fundamental rules for creation new technologies for nuclear and fortification industries.
Significant radiation attenuation of KF-βγ as a product was developed by technological measures up to renovation of structurally exhausted concretes as a full capacity radioactive shielding materials. Tremendous economical effect opened new field of decomintation radioactively polluted soils, plantations, abandoned mines and structures.
Fig 1 Radiation Penetration of Concrete and Lead, ( Russia, Taiwan and China.).
This chart shows the high initial energies at the high and low values and indicates the relationship to the values used in China. In this respect the energies are comparable. Concrete dramatically reduces radiation down to low levels, as does increasing the thickness, but not to the same extent.(Russia, Taiwan Tests done in China did not indicate such a large drop in energy loss Lead, as expected, produced the largest reduction in energy, and is just discernable at the scales used.
Fig 2. Radiation Penetration of Concrete and Lead. (Russia, Taiwan).
As in Fig 1, this chart shows extremely high, initial energy loss in terms of radiation penetration due to the presence of the concrete, (40:1 reduction), with the lower energies being more effective. Successive increase in concrete thickness also reduces the energy, but not to the same extent. (3:2 reduction).
Fig 3. Radiation Penetration of Concrete and Concrete with KF-αβγ Coatings. (Russia).
This chart also features the high initial energy drop in energy due to the concrete with subsequent reductions by the KF-αβγ layers, and as in previous cases, Fig 1-2, again not to the same dramatic extent. Radiation is progressively reduced or attenuated due to the application of the surface coatings and their. increase in thickness. Whilst it is not so obvious in Fig 3, the pattern or style involved in the energy loss follows some related exponential type of curve as opposed to power or linear.
Fig 4.Radiation Penetration of Concrete and Concrete with KF-αβγ Coatings.(Taiwan
This chart is very similar to Fig 3 in that it shows the very high initial drop in energy due to the the concrete followed by the reductions as a result of the applied KF-αβγ layers. In this case also the KF-αβγ layers contribute to a reduction in the energy, and, with lower energy initial energy providing a further reduction. The shape and character are also similaral to Fig 3, and are more definitive, because of the greater number of results and a more distinctive difference between higher and lower energies. This curve also appears to follow an exponential relationship.
Fig 5. Radiation Penetration of Concrete and KF-αβγ Coatings on Concrete, and Lead.(Russia, Taiwan)
This chart shows the radiation penetration for the results obtained in the other studies, Figs 1 to 5, (Russia, Taiwan), in that, large initial energies are shown, followed by large reductions in radiation energy due to the concrete.
The applications of KF-αβγ coatings to the concrete reduces the radiation to lower values. The values for Lead again are barely visible which is to be expected. Since there is some confliction regarding comparisons between tests and the end product results, from the above, it would seem that Lead could be used as a sessible, standard base, and so establish sensible parity between systems.
Fig 6. Radiation Penetration of Concrete and KF-αβγ Coatings on Concrete. (China).
This chart indicates the energies used for the China tests, and these values relate well to the range of energy values used for the other tests, ( Russia, Taiwan). The results show that concrete reduces the radiation energy, but, not to the same extent as in the other tests, as does the application of KF-αβγ coatings to the concrete surface, Fig 1 to 5.
The reasons for this may be explained by the fact of the very high incident radiation, position of samples relative to the source of radiation energy and to the sequence and position of the KF-αβγ coatings to these. In all situations the trends are common and follow an attenuation law.
Fig 7. % Radiation Reduction by Concrete. (Taiwan).
Radiation reduction can be displayed and understood more readily using % reduction graphs. In this case ignoring the initial part of the curve, since we only used a 30mm block of concrete, as in previous tests, a very high reduction of energy is observed, and with additional increases in concrete thickness the amount of energy loss becomes smaller, so as to account for only a fraction of the original transmitted energy amount. These values are of the order of 1 to 2% of the original.
Fig 8. % Radiation Reduction by Concrete and KF-αβγ Coatings on Concrete. (Taiwan).
This graph is similar to Fig 7, and relates % reduction of energy in terms of thickness of KF-αβγ coatings on concrete. A high initial drop in radiation energy occurs as the result of the concrete followed by slighter reductions dues to the coatings, as in the case for concrete. These reductions although small, are, nevertheless, larger than each individual reduction for the concrete alone, and this is born out by simple calculation. The graphs, Fig 7, and 8, are produced to show trends.
Fig 9. % Radiation Reduction by Concrete and KF-αβγ Coatings on Concrete. (China).
Graphs as shown in Figs 9 and 10, also are there to represent trends and not to be quite specific .This figure indicates the % reduction of initial energy for the higher energy source values in relation to concrete and KF-αβγ , coatings on concrete. In this situation the coatings are on the side facing the higher energy input, which is quite different in relation to the previous tests, where the coatings were on the outside, thus receiving less energy.
These tests were also performed nearer the radiation source and with limited curing times of 110 mins and 230 mins
The concrete reduced the value of the transmitted energy, less than 30%, and with the coatings down 50%. This is a steady reduction and must be explained in context with Fig 10.
Fig 10. % Radiation Reduction by Concrete and KF-αβγ Coatings on Concrete. (China).
This graph also shows the trends indicated in the previous graph, Fig 9. The concrete alone reduced the value of the radiation transmitted by 35%, and the KF-αβγcoatings on the concrete down by 50%. As previously mentioned this is much less than results obtained elsewhere, (Russia, Taiwan) The curve also indicates a marked increase in these values as do the results in Fig 9. These results also indicate the influence of the lower radiating energy source as well as the effects of the maturing of the KF-αβγ coatings.
Reducing the energy of the radiating source increases the amount of energy absorbed as in the case of the concrete, and this fits in with the observations of the other workers. The effects of maturing at this stage is insignificant and inconclusive due to such a slight variation in values.
Attempts have been made to explain differences and interrelate the results obtained in terms of material characteristics, source strengths and energies, relative source, sample and monitoring positions, and sequential spacing and location of the concrete with respect to the coatings.