1. The amount of water varies with the original moistness of aggregates and might the subject to change by 5% only from the weight of water.
2.  Reduction of cement content is available by 15%. Add the same amount of Coarse aggregate by volume.
3. Application of any other additives, premixes, or products of incineration results in retardation and/or reduction of High Performance Concrete features.     
Besides mixes shown in the table above, any mix design can be upgraded up to the required environmental and exploitation conditions, to provide maximum
utilization of local building materials.  

This effect is the KALMATRON admixtures added in the SK Series concrete creating a greater surface area to counter balance the aggressive medium. It has no detrimental effect on the concrete’s performance.

SK Series concrete grade 40 has been tested with the following aggressive media:-

Aggressive Medium  Concentration  Notes

Sulfuric Acid                 25%          No effect        

Nitric Acid                     20%   No effect
Phosphoric Acid          20%   No effect
Salt                               20%   No effect

Ammonia               15%   No effect

Alkalis                    35%   No effect

Sugar                     20%   No effect

Sulfates                 30%   No effect

Low Temperatures      - 34 oC     No effect 100 cycles

High Temperatures     400 oC     Slight crazing 75 cycles


1.  All SK Series concretes are waterproof.
2.  All SK Series concretes are darker in color.
3.  All SK Series concretes exhibit minimal bleed water.
4.  All SK Series concrete should be placed at no greater than 80mm slump.

Any adjustments that have to be made to the concrete mix should be consulted with your KALMATRON® CORPORATION representative. Please refer to Material Safety Data Sheet for precautions and personal protection.

  No special techniques are required to place SK Series concrete. Placement is done using conventional concrete technology to the standard requirements.   
  However, you must be aware that a false set will occur if the concrete is left without working for 45 minutes or more.  As soon as a vibrating probe or physical force
  is utilized the material will once again flow like freshly poured concrete.

  Waterproofing concrete for car parks, roof decks, balconies, swimming pools, concrete tanks, bridges, tunnels, etc.
  Acid Resistance for chemical manufacturing, sewerage tanks, bounded areas, electrolyte vapor, storage tanks etc.
  Freeze/Thaw Resistance ideal for freezer rooms, cool rooms and areas exposed to rapid temperature change.
  Abrasion resistance; no dust; no shrinkage cracks; less amount of dilatation cuts by 35%; no curing after application;
  Chloride Ion Resistance for piles exposed to salt water, seawall construction, wharf construction, salt manufacturing etc.
  Shotcrete easily with high build, minimal rebound.


   Low slump workability
  SK Series concrete exhibits high workability at a very low slump. Vee Bee testing has confirmed that in conventional 25Mpa concrete measured at 80 slump, “for the 
  same workability a 60mm slump SK Series should be used”.

  SK Series concrete enables the concrete placer to pump concrete without having to excessively adjust the slump with super plasticizers etc.
  Experience has shown that a 25Mpa SK Series concrete can be pumped as low as a 20mm slump and placed successfully for general slab construction.
  Another example was a project completed with a 40Mpa SK mix pumped vertically to a height of 40 meters at a 60mm slump with no increase in line pressure.

  High early strength
  SK Series concrete, when placed according to the manufacturers’ specifications, will have an increase in compressive strength at day 1, 3 and 7 compared to the  
  conventional concrete mix.  This increase in strength is generally 25%.

  Cracking – Plastic and Shrinkage
  SK Series Concrete has the ability to greatly reduce the prospect of plastic shrinkage cracking.  Due to its unique formulation SK Series concrete has minimum  
  bleed water.  This reduction in bleed water greatly assists the concrete in curing leading to a more completed hydration phase thus reducing shrinkage.

  SK Series concrete offers 100% protection of the reinforcing steel by two methods.
  The first method is by not allowing the water or aggressive media to come into contact with the steel.
  The second method is that the SK Series concrete has the ability to encase the steel in a protective film of zinc oxide with a film thickness of .006 microns.

  Exothermic Reactions
  SK Series concrete has the ability to maintain a lower temperature during the hydration phase compared to conventional concrete. 
  Testing on a 32Mpa conventional mix and a 32Mpa SK Series concrete mix has shown a core temperature difference of 25% during the critical hydration.


A typical SK Series mixes will display the following features:

Color:Extremely dark-gray

Appearance:                  Cohesive dry mix

Slump:             No greater than 120mm

Initial Set:               4 hours 30 minutes at 23 °C

Final Set:         6 hours 30 minutes at 23 °C

Pumpable:      Yes up to 150' wihtout changing w/c

Spray-able:     Yes (depending on aggregate size)

Bleed Water:   Extremely minimal

Impermeability:      100% tested at 14 atmospheres


ρ2 = 2300 [kg/m3] SK density;

α2 = 14.5 [10–6 m/m°С] coefficient of linear thermal expansion;

λ2 =1.73 [W/m °C] coefficient of thermal conductivity;

E2 = 3 x 104 MPa = 3 x 104 kg/mm2=30 kg/mm2 - Young modulus;

v2 = 0.107967 Poisson ratio;

s ≈ 50 [mm] – SK concrete at 50 mm minimal effective thickness.

   SK Series concrete has been designed to increase the field of application of conventional concrete mixes by upgrading their features up to the level of High Performance Concrete mix designs by KALMATRON® admixtures and controlled water to cement ratio.   
   Unlike conventional concrete the SK Series offers protection against acids, alkalis, chloride ion and total impermeability to oils and water ingress. Dependent on the technology of application we will provide aggregate variations to enable application by gunite, shotcrete, spray, and injection technologies. For environments with very high or low temperatures we can also recommend specified mix designs.

Inventions of the 21-st Century